What is Infection ? It’s Symptoms And Preventions
Here we are talking about the disease of Infection.We are providing more details of Infection.
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What Is Infection ?
A human with an infection has another organism inside them which gets its sustenance (nourishment) from that person, it colonizes that person and reproduces inside them. The human with that organism (germ) inside is called the host, while the germ or pathogen is referred to as a parasitic organism. Another name for an organism that causes infection is an infectious agent.It is only an infection if the colonization harms the host. It uses the host to feed on and multiply at the expense of the host to such an extent that his/her health is affected. The normal growth of the bacterial flora in the intestine is not an infection, because the bacteria are not harming the host.
An organism which colonizes and harms a host's health is often called a pathogen. Examples include:
- Viroids(Plant pathogens they affect the health of plants)
Symptoms Of Infection
Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms. General signs and symptoms common to a number of infectious diseases include:
- Muscle aches
- Nasal Congestion
- Pain in the abdomen or rectum
- Increased urination
- Burning or pain with urination.
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Prevention Of Infection
Hand washing is an effective way of preventing the spread of infectious microorganisms from one person to another. Hand washing is particularly important for people who handle food or who have frequent physical contact with other people. People visiting hospital patients who are seriously ill should wash their hands and may be asked put on a gown, mask, and gloves before entering the patient’s room. Many hospitals also provide sanitizing gels or foams that contain alcohol. Using these agents on the hands before and after touching patients can help prevent the spread of infection.
Sometimes antibiotics are given to people who do not yet have an infection to prevent them from getting an infection. This preventive measure is called prophylaxis. Many healthy people who undergo certain types of surgery—particularly abdominal surgery and organ transplantation—require prophylactic antibiotics.
Seek medical attention if you:
- Have been bitten by an animal
- Are having trouble breathing
- Have been coughing for more than a week
- Have severe headache with fever
- Experience a rash or Swelling
- Have unexplained or prolonged fever
- Have sudden vision problems
Causes of Infection
Infectious diseases can be caused by:
- Bacteria: These one-cell organisms are responsible for illnesses such as strep throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis.
- Viruses: Even smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a multitude of diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS.
- Fungi: Many skin diseases, such as ringworm and athlete's foot, are caused by fungi. Other types of fungi can infect your lungs or nervous system.
- Parasites: Malaria is caused by a tiny parasite that is transmitted by a mosquito bite. Other parasites may be transmitted to humans from animal feces.
1. Direct Contact:
An easy way to catch most infectious diseases is by coming in contact with a person or animal who has the infection. Three ways infectious diseases can be spread through direct contact are:
A.Person To Person: A common way for infectious diseases to spread is through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can occur when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn't infected.
B.Animal To Person: Being bitten or scratched by an infected animal even a pet can make you sick and, in extreme circumstances, can be fatal. Handling animal waste can be hazardous, too. For example, you can acquire a toxoplasmosis infection by scooping your cat's litter box.
2. Indirect Contact:
Disease-causing organisms also can be passed by indirect contact. Many germs can linger on an inanimate object, such as a tabletop, doorknob or faucet handle.
When you touch a doorknob handled by someone ill with the flu or a cold, for example, you can pick up the germs he or she left behind. If you then touch your eyes, mouth or nose before washing your hands, you may become infected.
A.Insect Bites: Some germs rely on insect carriers such as mosquitoes, fleas, lice or ticks to move from host to host. These carriers are known as vectors. Mosquitoes can carry the malaria parasite or West Nile virus, and deer ticks may carry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.
B.Food Communication: Another way disease-causing germs can infect you is through contaminated food and water. This mechanism of transmission allows germs to be spread to many people through a single source. E. coli, for example, is a bacterium present in or on certain foods such as under cooked hamburger or unpasteurized fruit juice.
How to cure Infection problems
The main treatment is usually medication: antibiotics for bacterial infections; antiviral drugs for some viruses (for most there is no treatment); antifungal medications for fungus infections; and antihelmintic drugs for worms. In some cases of localized infection, as when an abscess or collection of pus forms, surgery may be necessary to drain the infected area.
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